成长小说视阈下的《柑橘与柠檬啊》的研究

-回复 -浏览
楼主 2020-12-14 06:51:49
举报 只看此人 收藏本贴 楼主
sci影响因子
Chapter I Initiation Story and Private Peaceful

1.1 The Origin and Development of Initiation Story
Initiation story was born in the West. At present, the domestic and foreign academic circles  have  reached  a  consensus  on  this.  It  is  called  Bildungsroman  in  German.  In Towards  the  Definition  of  Bildungsroman,  Mai  Lin-yan  mentioned  that  German  critics, Friedrich  yon  Blunckenburg,  highly  praised  the  novel  of  Christoph  Martin  Wieland  in Essay  on  the  Novel,  1774.  When  it  comes  to  growth,  it  is  the  first  time  that  the  term “Bildungsroman” has been implied. Around 1820, Karl von Morgenstern formally put forward the concept of Bildungsroman in his two speeches. As his writings have not been widely  circulated,  his  contribution  to  the  concept  of  Bildungsroman  has  not  been recognized  by  more  people.  However,  German  philosopher  William  Dilthey  has  won more  honors  in  the  study  of  Bildungsroman.  He  gave  a  more  detailed  explanation  of Bildungsroman  in  Experience  and  Poetry,  1905.  His  definition  became  the  most frequently  cited  concept  in  later  explanations  of  Bildungsroman.  However,  other  critics have  revised  that  Dilthey  explored  Bildungsroman  as  early  as  in  The  Life  of Schleiermacher,  1870.  In Bakhtin?s view, Bildungsroman was born in the concentrated writing of a large number of Romantic writers.
Although there are different opinions on the origin of initiation story, it is generally accepted that initiation story originated in Germany in the middle and late 18th century. This  is  related  to  the  formation  of  German  national  consciousness  and  the  pursuit  of national  unity  at  that  time.  After  that,  the  initiation  story  has  developed  into  a  crucial novel style in the history of European literature. That is to say, the meaning of “state” and “subject”  was  unfamiliar  to  Germany  at  that  time.  In  order  to  construct  a  modern democratic country, Germany must create or grow up with such a meaning, and initiation story unintentionally becomes the symbol of undertaking this mission. The growth in the novel is like the growth of the nation to some degree. 
..........................

1.2 The Definition and Characteristics of Initiation Story
In the history of English literature, the name of  initiation story has not been fixed; the  reason  is  not  that  the  number  of  initiation  story  is  not  enough  to  make  it  an independent novel style. On the contrary, it is precisely because of the huge number of initiation story works and the different angles so it is difficult to cover its broad literary vision  and  aesthetic  scope  with  a  concise  word.  The  term  “Initiation”  comes  from anthropology.  It  refers  to  adolescence  who  has  experienced  a  series  of  trials  in  life  and acquired  the  knowledge  and  ability  to  deal  with  society  and  life  independently,  thus entering a new stage of life, Adult adulthood.
In What Is An Initiation Story (1960), Modigai Marcos traces the early origin of the term initiation in literary criticism. Cleanth Brooks and Warren used this term to describe a theme and a form of a story when they commented on Hemingway?s The Killers and Sherwood Anderson?s I Want to Know Why (1933) in Understanding Fiction (1943). Ray W. West used this term to refer to one of the two main forms of short stories in American Short  Stories:  1900-1950  (1952).  This paper adopts Marcos?  viewpoint,  uses  initiation story as the basic name of English Bildungsroman and takes it as a synonym of German Bildungsroman. 
In What Is An Initiation Story, Marcos summarizes and classifies many definitions of initiation, pointing out that there are two main types of definitions of initiation story. 
.............................

Chapter II An Analysis of the Protagonist’s Initiation in Terms of Plot 

2.1 The School Life
This  period  can  divide  into  two  parts.  The  first  part  is  before  the  graduation  of Charlie  and  Molly  and  the  second  part  is  after  the  graduation  of  the  two  of  them.  The initiation  of  Thomas  is  quite  obvious  in  this  period  which  has  significant  in  his  later determination and the rest of his life.
2.1.1 Before Charlie’s Graduation
In  the  text  of  initiation  story,  the  characteristics  of  the  protagonist  presents  to  the readers  are  simple,  naive,  and  even  ignorant  at  the  very  beginning.  This  is  the  logical start of narration and the prerequisite for the initiation of the protagonist. The protagonist of  Private  Peaceful,  Thomas  Peaceful,  was  an  innocent  child.  He  had  a  carefree  time before his father?s death. 
Before I ever went to school, he?d often take me off to work with him, to keep  me  out  of  mischief,  he  said.……I  hardly  needed  to  be  told.  There  were badger holes and fox holes to peer into, deer prints to follow perhaps, flowers to pick, or butterflies to chase. 
From the description of these lines, it is not difficult to see how happy he was when he was with his father. But it was the same day that his father was killed by a big tree to save  his  life.  He?s  been  blaming  himself  since  then.  He  couldn?t  tell  anyone  it  was  he who killed his father. The death of his father was the beginning of his inner growth.
He  didn?t  want  to  go  to  school  because  Big  Joe  could  stay  at  home  with  mother and Charlie had told him how terrible that school place is. He even hoped that the mother could run after him and take him home. The fear of school and the desire for carefreeness at home made Tommo feel miserable. 
.......................

2.2 The Short Work Life
Tommo worked with Charlie at Mr. Cox?s farm after he left school. Farmer Cox was a  fair  man.  Tommy?s  job  there  was  looking  after  horses  and  he  thought  it  was  good enough for him because he was with Charlie again. He liked the way that Charlie treated him, not like a boy anymore. The war had begun, but their life was still peaceful. Tommo was still Charlie?s postman, and soon he found out that the letter between them seemed less  frequent.  One  day,  when  he  and  Charlie  arrived  home  they  found  Molly  and  her mother were there. Molly?s parents knew the love between Molly and Charlie, and they didn?t allow that. Of course, Tommo didn?t know it before that. He was quite angry. He thought working with Charlie and being their postman could make three of them together again, but the link was broken suddenly  and followed his heart broken. ?I was so filled with anger and resentment towards him that I never wanted to speak to him again, nor to Molly come to that.? (Michael Morpurgo, 2014: 236-237)
   He thought he had been betrayed by the brother who always protected him and the girl he swore he would love until his death. He realized that the three of them could never ever get back again. And the pain his love brought him was one of the reasons he joined the  army  later.  He  never  talked  about  Molly  with  Charlie  again  after  that.  Although  he still loved Molly, he buried his love in his deep heart. 
...........................
Chapter  III  An  Analysis  of  the  Protagonist’s  Initiation  in  Terms  of  Other Characters .............................. 34
3.1 Positive Guidance ................................... 35
3.2 Negative Guidance ..................................... 43
Chapter  IV  An  Analysis  of  the  Protagonist’s Initiation  in  Terms  of  Writing Techniques .............................. 48
4.1 Open-ending ................................... 48
4.2 First-person Narrative ............................ 51

Chapter IV An Analysis of the Protagonist’s Initiation in Terms of Writing Techniques 

4.1 Open-ending
One  of  the  characteristics  of  an  initiation  story  is  its  open-ending.  The  end  of  the story  is  a  plot  to  be  told  at  the  end  of  the  story.  The  end  of  Private  Peaceful  tells  the reader that Thomas must survive because he has promises to keep.  However, the writer didn?t tell readers what would happen to him. It is clearly an open-ending. The ending of the story can be divided into a closed ending and open ending. Closed endings mean the questions  raised  in  the  story  are  answered;  all  the  emotions  aroused  are  satisfied. Opposite to closed ending is an open ending. As for the open ending, it means that most the questions raised during the story have been  answered, but there are still one or two unanswered  questions  that  will  extend  beyond  the  novel  and  allow  the  reader  to supplement after reading the novel. Most of the  emotions inspired by the novel will be satisfied,  but  there  are  still  some  emotional  residues  to  be  satisfied  by  the  readers themselves. That is to say, if a story climax leaves one or two unanswered questions and some unsatisfactory emotions, it is called an open ending. 
.........................

Conclusion

reference(omitted)
我要推荐
转发到